What is Natural Language Processing ?

What is Natural Language Processing ?

Natural language processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an artificial intelligence field that allows computers to analyze and understand human language. It is a method to make a computer understandably read a line of text without the computer being fed with any kind of clue or calculation.

Why is NLP important?

NLP combines artificial intelligence with computational linguistics and computer science to process human and natural languages and speech. The process can be divided into three parts. The computer uses an integrated statistical model to execute a speech recognition routine that converts natural language into a programming language. He does this by dividing a recent discourse he hears into tiny units and then compares these units with the previous units of a previous discourse.

The output or result in text format statistically determines the words and phrases that were most likely said. This first task is called the speech process for text. The next task is called speech part dialing (POS) or word-category disambiguation. This process elementally identifies words in their grammatical forms such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, preterit, etc., using a set of lexical rules encoded in the computer. After these two processes, the computer probably now understands the meaning of the discourse that has been made.

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What are the techniques used in NLP?

1. Syntax

Syntax refers to the arrangement of words in a sentence so that they have grammatical meaning. In NLP, syntactic analysis is used to evaluate how natural language aligns with grammar rules.

  • Lemmatization: It involves reducing the various flexed forms of a word in a single form to facilitate analysis.
  • Morphological segmentation: It involves dividing words into individual units called morphemes.
  • Word segmentation: It involves dividing a large piece of continuous text into different units.
  • Part-of-speech tagging: It involves identifying the part of the speech for each word.
  • Parsing: Involves performing grammatical analysis for the sentence provided.
  • Sentence breaking: It involves placing sentence limits on a large piece of text.
  • Stemming: It involves cutting the words flexed to their root form.

2. Semantics

Semantics refers to the meaning that is transmitted by a text. Semantic analysis is one of the difficult aspects of Natural Language Processing that has not yet been fully solved. Envolta the application of computer algorithms to understand the meaning and interpretation of words and how sentences are structured. Here are some techniques in semantic analysis:

  • Named entity recognition (NER): It involves determining the parts of a text that can be identified and categorized into predetermined groups.
  • Word sense disambiguation: It implies giving meaning to a word based on context.
  • Natural language generation: It involves the use of databases to derive semantic intentions and convert them into human language.

Steps in Natural language processing (NLP)

There are five general stages –

  • Lexical Analysis – The lexical analysis is dividing the whole piece of text into paragraphs, sentences, and words.
  • Syntactic Analysis (Analysis) – Involves word analysis in the sentence for grammar and word organization in a way that shows the relationship between the words. The sentence like “The school goes to the child” is rejected by the English parser.
  • Semantic Analysis – Draw the exact meaning or meaning of the dictionary from the text. The text is verified in terms of significance. This is done by assigning structures and syntactic objects in the domain of the task. The semantic analyzer disregards the sentence as “hot ice cream”.
  • Discursive integration – The meaning of any sentence depends on the meaning of the sentence prior to it.
  • Pragmatic Analysis – During that, what was said is reinterpreted in what it really meant. It implies the derivation of those aspects of the language that require knowledge of the real world.

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Challenges of Natural Language Processing

One of the challenges inherent in natural language processing is teaching computers to understand how humans learn and use language. In the course of human communication, the meaning of the sentence depends both on the context in which it was communicated and on the understanding of each person about the ambiguity in human languages. This phrase presents problems for the software that must first be programmed to understand the contextual and linguistic structures.